The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth of the demand for wireless services and a significant increase of the number of mobile subscribers. A recent data traffic forecast from Cisco reported that the global mobile data traffic reached 1.2 zettabytes per year in 2016, and the global IP traffic will increase nearly threefold over the next 5 years. Based on these predictions, a 127-fold increase of the IP traffic is expected from 2005 to 2021. It is also anticipated that the mobile data traffic will reach 3.3 zettabytes per year by 2021, and that the number of mobile-connected devices will reach 3.5 per capita.
With such demands for higher data rates and for better quality of service (QoS), fifth generation (5G) standardization initiatives, whose initial phase was specified in June 2018 under the umbrella of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 15, have been under vibrant investigation. In particular, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has identified three usage scenarios (service categories) for 5G wireless networks: (i) enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), (ii) ultra-reliable and low latency communications (uRLLC), and (iii) massive machine type communications (mMTC). The vast variety of applications for beyond 5G wireless networks has motivated the necessity of novel and more flexible physical layer (PHY) technologies, which are capable of providing higher spectral and energy efficiencies, as well as reduced transceiver implementations.
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Author: Kelly, Brandon M. (West Virginia University), Advisor: Graham, David W.
Within scientific research, engineering, and consumer electronics, there is a multitude of new discrete sensor-interfaced devices. Maintaining high accuracy in signal quantization while staying within the strict power-budget of these devices is a very challenging problem. Traditional paths to solving this problem include researching more energy-efficient digital topologies as well as digital scaling.
This work offers an alternative path to lower-energy expenditure in the quantization stage — content-dependent sampling of a signal. Instead of sampling at a constant rate, this work explores techniques which allow sampling based upon features of the signal itself through the use of application-dependent analog processing. This work presents an asynchronous sampling paradigm, based off the use of floating-gate-enabled analog circuitry. The basis of this work is developed through the mathematical models necessary for asynchronous sampling, as well the SPICE-compatible models necessary for simulating floating-gate enabled analog circuitry. These base techniques and circuitry are then extended to systems and applications utilizing novel analog-to-digital converter topologies capable of leveraging the non-constant sampling rates for significant sample and power savings.
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