The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth of the demand for wireless services and a significant increase of the number of mobile subscribers. A recent data traffic forecast from Cisco reported that the global mobile data traffic reached 1.2 zettabytes per year in 2016, and the global IP traffic will increase nearly threefold over the next 5 years. Based on these predictions, a 127-fold increase of the IP traffic is expected from 2005 to 2021. It is also anticipated that the mobile data traffic will reach 3.3 zettabytes per year by 2021, and that the number of mobile-connected devices will reach 3.5 per capita.
With such demands for higher data rates and for better quality of service (QoS), fifth generation (5G) standardization initiatives, whose initial phase was specified in June 2018 under the umbrella of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 15, have been under vibrant investigation. In particular, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has identified three usage scenarios (service categories) for 5G wireless networks: (i) enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), (ii) ultra-reliable and low latency communications (uRLLC), and (iii) massive machine type communications (mMTC). The vast variety of applications for beyond 5G wireless networks has motivated the necessity of novel and more flexible physical layer (PHY) technologies, which are capable of providing higher spectral and energy efficiencies, as well as reduced transceiver implementations.
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This paper presents a new robust PCA method for foreground-background separation on freely moving camera video with possible dense and sparse corruptions. Our proposed method registers the frames of the corrupted video and then encodes the varying perspective arising from camera motion as missing data in a global model. This formulation allows our algorithm to produce a panoramic background component that automatically stitches together corrupted data from partially overlapping frames to reconstruct the full field of view. We model the registered video as the sum of a low-rank component that captures the background, a smooth component that captures the dynamic foreground of the scene, and a sparse component that isolates possible outliers and other sparse corruptions in the video. The low-rank portion of our model is based on a recent low-rank matrix estimator (OptShrink) that has been shown to yield superior low-rank subspace estimates in practice. To estimate the smooth foreground component of our model, we use a weighted total variation framework that enables our method to reliably decouple the true foreground of the video from sparse corruptions. We perform extensive numerical experiments on both static and moving camera video subject to a variety of dense and sparse corruptions. Our experiments demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our proposed method compared to existing methods both in terms of foreground and background estimation accuracy.
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