The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth of the demand for wireless services and a significant increase of the number of mobile subscribers. A recent data traffic forecast from Cisco reported that the global mobile data traffic reached 1.2 zettabytes per year in 2016, and the global IP traffic will increase nearly threefold over the next 5 years. Based on these predictions, a 127-fold increase of the IP traffic is expected from 2005 to 2021. It is also anticipated that the mobile data traffic will reach 3.3 zettabytes per year by 2021, and that the number of mobile-connected devices will reach 3.5 per capita.
With such demands for higher data rates and for better quality of service (QoS), fifth generation (5G) standardization initiatives, whose initial phase was specified in June 2018 under the umbrella of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 15, have been under vibrant investigation. In particular, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has identified three usage scenarios (service categories) for 5G wireless networks: (i) enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), (ii) ultra-reliable and low latency communications (uRLLC), and (iii) massive machine type communications (mMTC). The vast variety of applications for beyond 5G wireless networks has motivated the necessity of novel and more flexible physical layer (PHY) technologies, which are capable of providing higher spectral and energy efficiencies, as well as reduced transceiver implementations.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly empowering people with an interconnected world of physical objects ranging from smart buildings to portable smart devices, such as wearables. With recent advances in mobile sensing, wearables have become a rich collection of portable sensors and are able to provide various types of services, including tracking of health and fitness, making financial transactions, and unlocking smart locks and vehicles. Most of these services are delivered based on users’ confidential and personal data, which are stored on these wearables. Existing explicit authentication approaches (i.e., PINs or pattern locks) for wearables suffer from several limitations, including small or no displays, risk of shoulder surfing, and users’ recall burden. Oftentimes, users completely disable security features out of convenience. Therefore, there is a need for a burden-free (implicit) authentication mechanism for wearable device users based on easily obtainable biometric data. In this paper, we present an implicit wearable device user authentication mechanism using combinations of three types of coarse-grain minute-level biometrics: behavioral (step counts), physiological (heart rate), and hybrid (calorie burn and metabolic equivalent of task). From our analysis of over 400 Fitbit users from a 17-month long health study, we are able to authenticate subjects with average accuracy values of around .93 (sedentary) and .90 (non-sedentary) with equal error rates of .05 using binary SVM classifiers. Our findings also show that the hybrid biometrics perform better than other biometrics and behavioral biometrics do not have a significant impact, even during non-sedentary periods.
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