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Algorithmic solutions for multi-object tracking (MOT) are a key enabler for applications in autonomous navigation and applied ocean sciences. State-of-the-art MOT methods fully rely on a statistical model and typically use preprocessed sensor data as measurements. In particular, measurements are produced by a detector that extracts potential object locations from the raw sensor data collected at discrete time steps. This preparatory processing step reduces data flow and computational complexity but may result in a loss of information. State-of-the-art Bayesian MOT methods that are based on belief propagation (BP) systematically exploit graph structures of the statistical model to reduce computational complexity and improve scalability. However, as a fully model-based approach, BP can provide highly suboptimal estimates when there is a mismatch between the statistical model and the true data-generating process. Existing BP-based MOT methods can further only make use of preprocessed measurements. In this paper, we introduce a variant of BP that combines model-based with data-driven MOT. The proposed neural enhanced belief propagation (NEBP) method complements the statistical model of BP by information learned from raw sensor data. This approach conjectures that the learned information can reduce model mismatch and thus improve data association and false alarm rejection. Our NEBP method improves tracking performance compared to model-based methods. At the same time, it inherits the advantages of BP-based MOT, i.e., it scales only quadratically in the number of objects, and it can thus generate and maintain a large number of object tracks. We evaluate the performance of our NEBP approach for MOT on the nuScenes autonomous driving dataset and demonstrate that it can achieve state-of-the-art performance. In particular, an average multi-object tracking accuracy (AMOTA) of 0.683 was obtained and, compared with non-BP-based methods, identity switches (IDS) and track fragment...
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