The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth of the demand for wireless services and a significant increase of the number of mobile subscribers. A recent data traffic forecast from Cisco reported that the global mobile data traffic reached 1.2 zettabytes per year in 2016, and the global IP traffic will increase nearly threefold over the next 5 years. Based on these predictions, a 127-fold increase of the IP traffic is expected from 2005 to 2021. It is also anticipated that the mobile data traffic will reach 3.3 zettabytes per year by 2021, and that the number of mobile-connected devices will reach 3.5 per capita.
With such demands for higher data rates and for better quality of service (QoS), fifth generation (5G) standardization initiatives, whose initial phase was specified in June 2018 under the umbrella of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 15, have been under vibrant investigation. In particular, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has identified three usage scenarios (service categories) for 5G wireless networks: (i) enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), (ii) ultra-reliable and low latency communications (uRLLC), and (iii) massive machine type communications (mMTC). The vast variety of applications for beyond 5G wireless networks has motivated the necessity of novel and more flexible physical layer (PHY) technologies, which are capable of providing higher spectral and energy efficiencies, as well as reduced transceiver implementations.
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The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithmis computationally expensive in the application to joint two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) and time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation based on uniform circular array (UCA) using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. This letter proposed an efficient way to compute the 3-D spatial-temporal spectrum. We extended the manifold separation technique, by which we obtained the 3-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) form of the spectrum. On this basis, we proposed two 2-D DOA and TOA estimators called FFT-MUSIC and Two-step FFT-MUSIC. The former computed the spectrum by large size fast Fourier transform (FFT) to reduce the grid error in searching DOAs and TOAs. The latter roughly located the DOAs and TOAs by relatively small size FFT, followed by the subspace-based technique for a fine-grained searching within a local grid. Simulation results showed that both estimators can reduce the computation cost by one to two orders of magnitude, as compared to their conventional counterparts, while maintaining a similar accuracy.
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