PET Image Deblurring and Super-Resolution With an MR-Based Joint Entropy Prior

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PET Image Deblurring and Super-Resolution With an MR-Based Joint Entropy Prior

Tzu-An Song; Fan Yang; Samadrita Roy Chowdhury; Kyungsang Kim; Keith A. Johnson; George El Fakhri; Quanzheng Li; Joyita Dutta
The intrinsically limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) confounds image quantitation. This paper presents an image deblurring and super-resolution framework for PET using anatomical guidance provided by high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images. The framework relies on image-domain postprocessing of already-reconstructed PET images by means of spatially variant deconvolution stabilized by an MR-based joint entropy penalty function. The method is validated through simulation studies based on the BrainWeb digital phantom, experimental studies based on the Hoffman phantom, and clinical neuroimaging studies pertaining to aging and Alzheimer's disease. The developed technique was compared with direct deconvolution and deconvolution stabilized by a quadratic difference penalty, a total variation penalty, and a Bowsher penalty. The BrainWeb simulation study showed improved image quality and quantitative accuracy measured by contrast-to-noise ratio, structural similarity index, root-mean-square error, and peak signal-to-noise ratio generated by this technique. The Hoffman phantom study indicated noticeable improvement in the structural similarity index (relative to the MR image) and gray-to-white contrast-to-noise ratio. Finally, clinical amyloid and tau imaging studies for Alzheimer's disease showed lowering of the coefficient of variation in several key brain regions associated with two target pathologies.  

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