Collaborative Multi-Sensing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

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Collaborative Multi-Sensing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

Vini Gupta; Swades De

This article presents an adaptive multi-sensing (MS) framework for a network of densely deployed solar energy harvesting wireless nodes. Each node is mounted with heterogeneous sensors to sense multiple cross-correlated slowly-varying parameters/signals. Inherent spatio-temporal correlations of the observed parameters are exploited to adaptively activate a subset of sensors of a few nodes and turn-OFF the remaining ones. To do so, a multi-objective optimization problem that jointly optimizes sensing quality and network energy efficiency is solved for each monitoring parameter. To increase energy efficiency, network and node-level collaborations based multi-sensing strategies are proposed. The former one utilizes spatial proximity (SP) of nodes with active sensors (obtained from the MS) to further reduce the active sensors sets, while the latter one exploits cross-correlation (CC) among the observed parameters at each node to do so. A retraining logic is developed to prevent deterioration of sensing quality in MS-SP. For jointly estimating all the parameters across the field nodes using under-sampled measurements obtained from MS-CC based active sensors, a multi-sensor data fusion technique is presented. For this ill-posed estimation scenario, double sparsity due to spatial and cross-correlation among measurements is used to derive principal component analysis-based Kronecker sparsifying basis, and sparse Bayesian learning framework is then used for joint sparse estimation. Extensive simulation studies using synthetic (real) data illustrate that, the proposed MS-SP and MS-CC strategies are respectively 48.2 (52.09)% and 50.30 (8.13)% more energy-efficient compared to respective state-of-the-art techniques while offering stable sensing quality. Further, heat-maps of estimated field signals corresponding to synthetically generated and parsimoniously sensed multi-source parameters are also provided which may aid in source localization Internet-of-Things appl...

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