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In this paper, we develop a kernel adaptive filter for quaternion data, using stochastic information gradient (SIG) cost function based on the information theoretic learning (ITL) approach. The new algorithm (QKSIG) is useful for quaternion-based kernel applications of nonlinear filtering. Adaptive filtering in quaterion domain intrinsically incorporates component-wise real valued cross-correlation or the coupling within the dimensions of the quaternion input. We apply generalized Hamilton-real (GHR) calculus that is applicable to quaternion Hilbert space for evaluating the cost function gradient. The QKSIG algorithm minimizes Shannon's entropy of the error between the filter output and desired response and minimizes the divergence between the joint densities of input-desired and input-output pairs. The SIG technique reduces the computational complexity of the error entropy estimation. Here, ITL with SIG approach is applied to quaternion adaptive filtering for three different reasons. First, it reduces the algorithm computational complexity compared to our previous work quaternion kernel minimum error entropy algorithm (QKMEE). Second, it improves the filtering performance by considering the coupling within the dimensions of the quaternion input. Third, it performs better in biased or non-Gaussian signal and noise environments due to ITL approach. We present convergence analysis and steady-state performance analysis results of the new algorithm (QKSIG). Simulation results are used to show the behavior of the new algorithm QKSIG in quaternion non-Gaussian signal and noise environments compared to the existing ones such as quadruple real-valued kernel stochastic information gradient (KSIG) and quaternion kernel LMS (QKLMS) algorithms.