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Recently, self-supervised learning (SSL) from unlabelled speech data has gained increased attention in the automatic speech recognition (ASR) community. Typical SSL methods include autoregressive predictive coding (APC), Wav2vec2.0, and hidden unit BERT (HuBERT). However, SSL models are biased to the pretraining data. When SSL models are finetuned with data from another domain, domain shifting occurs and might cause limited knowledge transfer for downstream tasks.

Speech self-supervised learning has attracted much attention due to its promising performance in multiple downstream tasks, and has become a new growth engine for speech recognition in low-resource languages. In this paper, we exploit and analyze a series of wav2vec pre-trained models for speech recognition in 15 low-resource languages in the OpenASR21 Challenge.

Although supervised deep learning has revolutionized speech and audio processing, it has necessitated the building of specialist models for individual tasks and application scenarios. It is likewise difficult to apply this to dialects and languages for which only limited labeled data is available. Self-supervised representation learning methods promise a single universal model that would benefit a wide variety of tasks and domains. 

The papers in this special section focus on self-supervised learning for speech and audio processing. A current trend in the machine learning community is the adoption of self-supervised approaches to pretrain deep networks. Self-supervised learning utilizes proxy-supervised learning tasks (or pretext tasks) - for example, distinguishing parts of the input signal from distractors or reconstructing masked input segments conditioned on unmasked segments—to obtain training data from unlabeled corpora. 

Network slicing to support multi-tenancy plays a key role in improving the performance of 5G and beyond networks. In this paper, we study dynamically slicing network resources in the backhaul and Radio Access Network (RAN) prior to user demand observations across multiple tenants, where each tenant owns and operates several slices to provide different services to users.
Dual-Functional Radar-Communication (DFRC) is a promising paradigm to achieve Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) in beyond 5G. In parallel, Rate-Splitting Multiple Access (RSMA), relying on multi-antenna Rate-Splitting (RS) by splitting messages into common and private streams at the transmitter and Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) at the receivers, has emerged as a new strategy for multi-user multi-antenna communications systems. I
A receiver architecture is proposed to cognitively extract navigation observables from fifth generation (5G) new radio (NR) signals of opportunity. Unlike conventional opportunistic receivers which require knowledge of the signal structure, particularly the reference signals (RSs), the proposed cognitive opportunistic navigation (CON) receiver requires knowledge of only the frame duration and carrier frequency of the signal. In 5G NR, some of these RSs are only transmitted on demand, which limits the existing opportunistic...
This paper investigates the problem of secret key generation from correlated Gaussian random variables in the short blocklength regime. Short blocklengths are commonly employed in massively connected IoT sensor networks in 5G and beyond wireless systems. Polar codes have previously been shown to be applicable to the secret key generation problem, and are known to perform well for short blocklengths in the channel coding context. Inspired by these findings, we propose an explicit protocol based on polar codes for generating secret keys in the short blocklength regime.
A private fifth generation (5G) network is a dedicated 5G network with enhanced communication characteristics, unified connectivity, optimized services, and customized security within a specific area. By subsuming the advantages of both public and non-public 5G networks, private 5G networks have found their applications across industry, business, utilities, and the public sector.
The papers in this special section focus on advanced signal procesing for local and private 5G mobile communication netwworks. The papers describe the latest advances in emerging private 5G networks from the perspective of signal processing to advance its theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Some enterprises, factories and other potential users have ultra-stringent communications performance requirements in terms of throughput, latency, reliability, availability, and device density, which cannot be met by 4G long term evolution (LTE) radio features.


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