A Neural-Enhanced Factor Graph-Based Algorithm for Robust Positioning in Obstructed LOS Situations

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A Neural-Enhanced Factor Graph-Based Algorithm for Robust Positioning in Obstructed LOS Situations

Alexander Venus; Erik Leitinger; Stefan Tertinek; Klaus Witrisal

This paper presents a neural-enhanced probabilistic model and corresponding factor graph-based sum-product algorithm for robust localization and tracking in multipath-prone environments. The introduced hybrid probabilistic model consists of physics-based and data-driven measurement models capturing the information contained in both, the line-of-sight (LOS) component as well as in multipath components (NLOS components). The physics-based and data-driven models are embedded in a joint Bayesian framework allowing to derive from first principles a factor graph-based algorithm that fuses the information of these models. The proposed algorithm uses radio signal measurements from multiple base stations to robustly estimate the mobile agent's position together with all model parameters. It provides high localization accuracy by exploiting the position-related information of the LOS component via the physics-based model and robustness by exploiting the geometric imprint of multipath components independent of the propagation channel via the data-driven model. In a challenging numerical experiment involving obstructed LOS situations to all anchors, we show that the proposed sequential algorithm significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods and attains the posterior Cramér-Rao lower bound even with training data limited to local regions.

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